Windsor Castle is a royal residence and a tourist place at Windsor in Berkshire a country of south east England, located to the west of London. The castle is famous for its long relation with the British royal family and for its architecture. The core part of Castle was built in the 11thcentuary after the invation of William the conqueror . After Henry I ,it had been used by his successors and the most used castle in Europe.It was mainly designed to protect places around London and planes around River Thames from Norman dominance.It was built in a format such as three wards surrounding a central mound.Gradually placed with stone fortifications, the castle contains a prolonged siege during the First Barons’ War at the start of the 13th century. In middle of Thirthteenth centaury Henry III built a luxurious royal palace in the castle , and Edward IIIwent following his ancestors, rebuilding the palace to produce an even number set of buildings making the Castle “the most expensive secular building project of the whole Middle Ages in Britain.
On the other hand Henry VIII and Elizabeth I make use of the Castle as a royal court and centre of diplomatic. This castle sees the period of English civil war when it was used as a headquarter for parliamentary forces and prison for Charles I. During the Restoration, much part of the Windsor palace was rebuilt by Charles II with the help of architect Hugh May, Baroque interiors that are still admired. After a long period of neglect from the Charles successors ,in the 18th century, George III and George IV restore and rebuilt Charles II’s palace at colossal expense, forming the current design of the State Apartments. Windsor castle was used as refuge for the royal family during the second World War due to bombardment by German forces.
Windsor Castle covers an area of more than thirteen acres.This castle have features of Fortification, a Palace and a small town. The present castle is a product of phased building project, reconstruction after a fire in 1992. It is the output of Georgian and Victorian design based on a medieval structure.
At the centre of Windsor Castle lies the Middle Ward, a architecture formed around the motte or artificial hill at the centre of the ward. The motteheight is50 ft and is made from chalk mainly excavated from the nearby ditch. This building is called the Round Tower, situated on the top of the motte originated from the 12th-century building,this building is extended to a more height of 30 ft under the architect Jeffry Wyattville to produce a more imposing height and silhouette. In the Round Tower the interior were further constructed in 1991–93 to provide additional space for the Royal Archives, an additional room was built in the space left by Wyattville’s . The Round Tower is in reality not in cylindrical shape, due to the structure of the motte under it. The present height of the tower has been criticised as being unmatching according to its width. The western entrance of the middle ward is open and another gateway leads to North Terrace.
The Upper Ward of Windsor Castle consist of a number of major buildings enclosed by the bailey wall, producing a central quadrangle. The state apartments stand on its north side with a range of building standing on its east wall and private apartments , King George IV Gate on its south side. The Edward III Tower stand in the south-west corner with Middle ward is on the west edge of the ward. The upper ward is considered as a construction of nineteenth centuary. The walls of the Upper Ward are built of Bagshot Heath stone faced on the inside with regular bricks. The buildings in the Upper Ward are known by the use of small bits of flint in the mortar for galletting, firstly started at the castle in the 17th century to give stonework from difficult periods a similar appearance.
The state apartments are the major parts in Upper Ward and it lies along the north side of Quadrangle. These modern building follow the middle age foundation laid by Edward III, with ground floor consist of service chamber and first floor serve as main part of building. At first floor, the design of the western end of the State Apartments is mainly the work of architect Hugh May, whereas the layout on the eastern side represents Jeffry Wyattville’swork.Most of the interior of the State Apartments were designed by Wyattville in the early 19th century. Wyattville attended each room to illustrate a particular architectural style and to find the matching furnishings and fine arts of the period .Different rooms of this apartment follow theGothic, Classical and Rococo styles, also consisting an element of Jacobethan in places.At the eastern end Many of the rooms of the castle had to be restored after the 1992 fire, using “similar restoration” methods – the rooms were restored so they appear similar to their original appearance. Although , Windsor Palace is the example of the incredible art and design of the medieval age, so one most visit to see this beautiful architecture .