Iceland is one of the most sparsely populated Nordic island between the Artic Oceans and the North Atlantic, in Europe. Iceland saw its independence in 1918 and was declared a republic in 1944. After World War 2, Iceland saw its prosperity, earlier of which the country depended only on fishing and agriculture.
After the Great Britain, Iceland is the second largest in Europe and stands 18th in the world with about 101,826km,out of which 62.7% is tundra region, 23% is vegetated and 14.3% is covered by lakes and glaciers. Reykjavik is the capital city of Iceland .There are three major national parks situated in Iceland namely Snafellsjokull, Vatnajokull and Pingvellir. The Yale University has ranked Iceland 13th in the Enviornmental protection index in 2012.
Iceland is a land of highly active volcanoes and geysers. Volcanoes like hekla, eldfell, eldgja and Laki which are as destructive as causing famine and killing about quarters of land’s population. The geyser, Geysir, is the word from which the English word Geyser has been obtained. At Iceland the geyser Strokkur is as frequent as erupting every 7-10 minutes. The local population access cost free electricity and hot water through these geysers and also the availability of geothermal power is in abundance. The usage of electricity at Iceland is higher than that of USA which to 28787 kwh per year. at Iceland Hydroelectric sources and geothermal power stations expoit about 98% of the total renewable energy.
The climate of Iceland is subpolar oceanic. The annual high temperatures are due the warm North Atlantic Currents, which is high as compared to other regions in same geography. Temperatures as low as -38 degree Celsius are felt during winters and as high as 30.5 degree Celsius during summers.
Biodiversity of about 1300 species known to the world are available here, with natives like the arctic fox, some bats which do not breed in the island and some occasionally visiting polar bears, Whereas the plants include a range of northern birch, rowan, aspen and common juniper with some other willows and smaller trees. Most of the lands at Iceland are treeless, not entirely tough but yes a major afforestation has occurred in Iceland due to which a major number of population has to be rehabittated every year.
A North Germanic language is Iceland’s official spoken and written language called Icelandic, which also a a Sign language form, Whereas English and Danish are subjects which are compulsory at school.
The cuisine of Iceland consists of less of spices and herbs and is majorly on dairy products and lamb and fish. Vegetables and fruits are not generally available at Iceland due to its geographical location. Some of the traditional dishes of Iceland include diehs like puffin, sured ram, skyr, hakari and many others. Seafood is served generally during dinner which is the main course of the meal throughout the day for Icelandic and the breakfast and the lunch contains dairy food and smorgasbord respectively.
The country is said to have consumed the highest per capita coca cola in the world whereas coffee and vodka are also majorly consumed. Along with coca cola the majorly consumed food article is the hot dog full of fried onions, fresh bun and definitely the fresh bun which is the best available in its capital city Reykjavik.
Glima which is a form of wrestling is the traditional and national sport of Iceland which was introduced in the medieval times. The population is highly active in terms of sports like skiing, rock climbing, hiking, mountain climbing. Telemark skiing is one of the most appreciated skiing at the northern Iceland. Golf, Swimming, shooting, horseback riding, bridge are also highly populated sports in the region.
Iceland’s national anthem Lofsongur was written by Matthias Jochumsson. Iceland is not only a land of vivid climate, food and an amalgation of immense number of sports but also has a high spirit in terms of music and cultural development of its citizens. There are major bands like Bang gang, Amiina, Wuarashi and many independent singers in Iceland.
The naming system of Iceland is very peculiar which contains three major parameters to be talked about first the name is not a family name, second, the name is selected from a list of predefined names and third, after marriage one doesn’t take the spouse name. A person’s family name cannot be depicted from his name at Iceland because one uses only a metronymic or patronymic name along with the first name. One of the most peculiar parts of the naming system at Iceland is that one can use both parents name as a part of his name. Icelandic language plays an important role in using a new name. if a parent wishes to use a name not mentioned or described in the list he/she has to send a request to the national Icelandic Naming committee for approval whose acceptance depends on the words meaning in the local language used at Iceland. A major drawback of this system is when one travels off the country where it is expected that the offspring’s last name is same as that of the mother or the father. Moreover the directories in Iceland contain list only from the first names for simplification